Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

2. Connect clauses Copy

We use if/ whether/ that/ WH-words to introduce a clause, which acts as a noun.

  • I don’t know what to do about this..
  • I think that he is trustworthy.
  • I don’t care if/ whether he comes or not

To introduce an adverb clause of time, we can use before, since, until, after, when, while, since, once, whenever 

  • I returned home after he had gone.
  • I have not seen him since he moved to this city.
  • I will not forget that incident until I die.

An adverb clause of reason usually starts with as, since and because

  • He may enter, as he is a friend.
  • Since he was not there, his brother James took the message.
  • He may get a promotion because he has proved his efficiency.

An adverb clause of Purpose usually starts with: so that or in order that 

  • We eat so that we live.
  • Children should play outdoor games in order that their health will improve.

An adverb clause of condition usually starts with if, unless, as if, provided that

  • I will work abroad if I get a good job offer. 
  • They won’t help you unless you tell them the truth. 
  • They will help you provided that you tell them the truth. 
  • She spoke as if she knew everything. 

An adverb clause of contrast usually starts with although, even though or though

  • He works hard though he is weak. 
  • She is always neatly dressed although she doesn’t have much money. 

For emphasis, we often use even with though (but not with although).

An adverb clause of result usually starts with so or so ADJ that 

  • I need to get there by 5 o’clock so I’d better hurry.
  • He’s so rude that nobody likes him.